White bands are ammonia ice clouds.  Blue areas are gaps between high clouds, looking through haze into deeper layers.  Cause of the red color is unknown.  One of Jupiter's four big moons made the shadow.  Cassini spacecraft image, December 7, 2000.

Orbital Elements
Mean distance from Sun778,330,000 km    =    5.203 astronomical units
Perihelion distance740,900,000 km=    4.953 astronomical units
Aphelion distance815,700,000 km=    5.453 astronomical units
Eccentricity of orbit0.0483
Inclination of orbit1.308relative to Earth's orbit
Period of orbit11.8623 years
Synodic period399 daysrelative to Earth
Mean orbital speed13.07 km/s
Minimum orbital speed12.44 km/s
Maximum orbital speed13.72 km/s
Physical Properties
Mean diameter139,822 km=    11  Earth diameters
Equatorial radius71,492 km
Polar radius66,854 km
Mass1.900 x 1027 kg=    317.94 Earth masses
Mean density1.33 g/cm3
Rotational period9.841 hoursat equator, where rotation is fastest
Inclination of axis3.13relative to the axis of its orbit
Gravity at cloud tops22.88 m/s2
Escape speed59.56 km/sfrom cloud tops
Visual geometric albedo0.52
Visual magnitude (Vo)-2.70maximum, as seen from Earth
Mean visible cloud temperature    -121C
Atmospheric pressure0.7 barat cloud tops

Atmosphere   composition by mass
Hydrogen (H2)82%        
Helium (He)17%
Methane (CH4)
Ammonia (NH3)
Water vapor (H2O)


Four large moons, easily visible through binoculars,
and more than 50 small moons.

HomeTo my Space and Science home page  for more about the Solar System

Jeff Root
September 4, 2003